Organization: West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development
Closing date: 01 Mar 2018
A. Regional and Country Context
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAP) is home to about 350 million inhabitants, about 55 percent of whom live in rural areas. Most derive their food and livelihood from agriculture, which contributes about 29 percent of GDP and 28 percent of exports by value. Over the last decade, West African countries have experienced strong economic growth, with GDP rising 3.21 percent annually from 1990-1999, 4.87 percent annually from 2000-2009, and 5.46 percent annually from 2010-2014. This positive economic performance has been driven mainly by growing domestic demand, robust foreign investment, favorable commodity prices, and somewhat improved economic governance (Africa progress, 2015). However, in 2015, GDP growth decreased severely, falling to 2.25 percent, the lowest level since 1994, putting West Africa economic performance below the average of Sub-Saharan Africa and the World. This resulted from the oil price crisis, which affected particularly the region’s biggest economy, Nigeria, where year-over-year growth fell from 6.30 percent in 2014 to 2.65 percent in 2015. In addition, the 2014 Ebola outbreak that hit Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea exacted a heavy toll on the economic performance of these three countries.
Similar to the performance of the overall economy, the performance of West Africa’s agriculture sector has fluctuated highly over the years. With an average growth rate of 4.22 percent in 1990-2015, agricultural growth in West Africa has been higher than growth in Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole one with a growth rate of 4.09, but lower than the target of 6% of the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program (CAADP).
While at global level the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of halving poverty was met (36.4 percent in 1990 to 14.5 percent in 2011), that was not the case in West Africa. In ECOWAS region, the poverty rate fell by 18 percentage points (from 63 percent to 45 percent), equivalent to a 29 percent reduction in the overall poverty rate. Hence, the region needs an economic growth that is more transformational, sustained, inclusive and pro-poor to lift above the poverty threshold the 148 million West Africans of whom most are rural with agriculture as main source of livelihood. Many evidences have shown that agriculture-led development holds the key to build transformational economic growth and pathway out of poverty. A GDP growth generated in agriculture is at least twice as effective in reducing poverty than growth generated by other sectors (World Bank 2008).
A renewed commitment of the African Heads of State for Agriculture sector development. Africa’s agricultural development acquired new momentum when, in January 2014, the African Union adopted the ‘Malabo Declaration on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and Transformation’ in which African heads of states and governments recommitted to the principles and value of the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) including to uphold the 10 percent target for public spending on agriculture, to double agricultural productivity, and to sustain annual growth in agricultural gross domestic product of at least 6 percent.
A renewed commitment of development partners to engage and invest in the agricultural sector. In September 2015, the United Nations (UN) adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including the second SDG, “to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”. The African Development Bank launched “Feed Africa: Strategy for Agricultural Transformation in Africa, 2016-2025,” which aims at ending hunger and rural poverty in Africa within the next decade. The World Bank has committed itself to the twin goals of eliminating extreme poverty by 2030, and boosting shared prosperity (measured as the income of the bottom 40 percent in any given country). The World bank, the African Development Bank and the Islamic Development Bank launched bilateral Deep Dive initiatives in which they agree to strengthen and coordinate their intervention to boost regional integration to accelerate agricultural transformation in West Africa.
The agenda for agricultural transformation between now and 2030 is thus more complex than in the recent past and needs a more regional approach. Agriculture must address a multi-functional mandate including growth, poverty reduction, climate resilience, job creation, and nutrition. In addition, managing the sector will require a multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder approach to achieve multiple objectives. The challenges facing agriculture in West Africa and the potential solutions transcend national boundaries and can be attacked most effectively by using a regional integration approach.
B. Sectoral and Institutional Context
Agriculture is a key sector in West Africa’s economy. West African agriculture is making important progress yet a number of challenges are still to be addressed to move forward a transformational change, such as weak institutions (research, education, etc.); weak connection of production to markets (both internal and regional); inadequate policies and weak implementation of regional regulations; vulnerability to internal/external shocks; increasing youth population and unemployment; low private sector investment in the agricultural sector; etc.
Ten years after its launch, the ECOWAS Common Agricultural Policy (ECOWAP), is still the major framework for agricultural transformation and regional integration in West Africa. In November 2015, ECOWAS launched a process to reshape and strengthen ECOWAP, to meet the new challenges and priorities facing West Africa and its population ten years after its official launch. Based on the evolution of the agri-food systems since 2005, and taking into account the new challenges, ECOWAS identified the following new areas as key principles that will need to shape policy making going forward i) Greater emphasis on the commercial dimension of agricultural policies; the regional market plays a crucial role in ensuring food and nutrition security; ii) Better targeting of the areas of action; it is necessary to develop an agricultural policy that better takes into account the spatial dimension and dynamics of agricultural intensification that are occurring in areas that are best connected to urban markets; iii) and stronger focus on the post-harvest segments of food value chains and integrated agricultural policies. The region is processing the updating of the National Investment Plans (NAIP) and the Regional Investment Plans (RAIP) based on these new orientations.
West Africa remains reliant on food imports and food insecure (particularly in the North or Sahel). Regional production covers around 80% of the population’s food needs. As a net importer of cereals (i.e. rice, wheat) and livestock products, West Africa was severely affected by the Ebola crises, the fluctuation of global food prices and the decline in oil prices. Intra-regional agricultural trade remains limited and its share of total world agricultural trade is marginal. Climate change, increasing population and degradation of natural resources are posing additional challenges to rural livelihoods in these natural resources dependent economy. Demand for food will grow more rapidly than supply if output and productivity continue to grow at rates observed in recent years. More than 100 million youth will enter the labor force over the next decade and job creation for youth is one of the major concerns of African policymakers. West Africa is still lagging other parts of Africa when it comes to agricultural research and extension capacity and investment impact. From Regional perspective, market integration and trade are key drivers of regional food security, as they contribute both to food self-sufficiency in Sahel region and import substitution in Coastal countries.
The West Africa Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP), a successful regional integration program that contributed to the recent agricultural performance observed over the region. WAAPP has created a new framework and new tools to enhance regional integration in the agriculture sector which are being replicated as a model in other sub- regions and other sectors. Lessons learned from the implementation of WAAPP demonstrated that a regional approach is essential to achieve the positive results of a “green revolution”
Much more is needed, however, if West Africa is to reach the ambitious future agricultural transformation targets set by CAADP and the United Nations. The apparent recent increase in political support to agricultural research must be translated into a clear set of policy directives by governments if the many challenges facing agricultural research systems are to be addressed.
C. Relationship to CPF
The WAATP fits within ECOWAP and the Governments’ new generation of National Agriculture Investment plans for food and nutrition security developed under the CAADP process. At the same time, WAATP is aligned with Pillar 3 of the World Bank Regional Integration Assistance Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa (RIASS-updated in 2011), as well as the Bank’s country assistance strategies (CAS) and Country Partnership Framework for participating countries. It will be one of the major programs to support the IDA 18 Business Plan for West Africa (2017). The program is also aligned with the Bank’s Agriculture Global Practice increased focus on climate change, nutrition and jobs. It will be a key tool to speed achievement of the Bank twin goals of eliminating extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity, measured as the income of the bottom 40 percent.
D. Project Context
Proposed Development Objective(s), Description and Components
The PDO is to strengthen a regional agricultural innovations system which will facilitate mass adoption of climate smart technologies by producers, enhance job creation for youth and enhance value chain actors access to regional markets for targeted agricultural products.
The proposed West Africa Agricultural Transformation Project will be one of the major projects to support the IDA 18 Business Plan for West Africa. The WAATP will contribute to bridging the gaps identified above. It will build on and expand WAAPP achievements, while going beyond the WAAPP objective of increasing productivity to address, using a more holistic approach, the broader issue of accelerating food availability in quantity and quality to feed a growing and urbanized population.
The project will also build a coalition for more impact with Bank national projects, the African Development Bank’s Technologies for African Agricultural Transformation (TAAT), the Islamic Development Bank’s upcoming regional agricultural development program and interventions of other development partners, using a different set of instruments. Several mechanisms will be put in place to ensure strong synergy between regional programs and national projects including joint implementation support missions, joint annual work programs and budgets, memorandum of understanding outlining collaboration areas. The coalition for more impact will also rely on a different set of instruments, including the regional technology market and national and regional technology fairs, exchange visits and MOUs. It will also build a well-structured coalition with the CGIAR institutions to speed adoption of CGIAR technologies at a large scale through MOUs with the regional centers of Excellence. A Task force composed of task team leaders of regional projects of AfDB, ISDB and any other relevant institution will be set up and meet regularly to discuss synergies and common programs.
The focus of the project activities will be based on country specific priorities. The mechanisms which will be used to identify project focus include: i) consultation with stakeholders both at country level and regional level (regional wrap up meetings); ii) consultation with Government officials during preparation missions; iii) review of analytical work done at country level (National Investment Plans, Bank CPF and any other relevant documents
The project would have five components: (i) Strengthening the new model of innovation delivery in West Africa; (ii) Accelerating mass adoption of technologies and job creation; (iii) Policies, Markets and Institutional Strengthening; (iv) Contingent emergency response; (v) Coordination and management of the Project
The CORAF/WECARD Technical Consultant will report directly to Dr. Lamien Nieyidouba, WAAPP Program Officer of CORAF/WECARD with copy to Dr. James Ocheme Apochi, National Project Coordinator, WAATP-Nigeria and Dr. Sheu Salau, Senior Agriculture Economist and Co- Task Team Leader for Nigeria-WAATP of the World Bank. The main tasks of the CORAF/WECARD Technical Consultant is to prepare the Country Paper using a standard template which will consist of the following contents:
Chapter 1: National Context of WAATP
A. Country Context
B. Achievements of WAAPP in the country
Chapter 2: Description of Project
A. Justification of WAATP
B. Objective of development
C. Description of Components
Chapter 3: Implementation modalities
A. Coordination: National and Regional Levels
B. Implementation of Components
C. Environmental and Social Safeguards
D. Financial Management
Chapter 4: Project Cost, Financing and Benefits
A. Cost and Financing of the Project
B. Benefits and Beneficiaries
C. Financial Analysis of Priority Projects
 13 out of 15 countries of ECOWAS benefitted from WAAPP series: Senegal, Ghana and Mali, (WAAPP-1A approved in 2007 and WAAPP-2A approved in 2012 and 2013), Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria (WAAPP-1B approved in 2010), and Benin, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Liberia, Niger, Sierra Leone, The Gambia and Togo (WAAPP-1C approved in 2011).
How to apply:
Individual consultants should provide a record of expression of interest consisting of: (i) the methodology to be used to do the work requested, (ii) references concerning the performance and experience of similar services, (iii) and their updated CV.
Interested consultants may obtain additional information from CORAF/WECARD Executive Secretariat by sending correspondence email@example.com with copy to firstname.lastname@example.org from 8am to 12pm and from 15h to 17h GMT
Expressions of interest must be submitted by e-mail to: email@example.com, on 01/03 / 2018 at 10:00 GMT at the latest.